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甘肃技能大师工作室:青砖上“复刻”世界 传承千年技艺

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  中新网兰州12月3日电 (杨娜)一块普通的青砖经过全国劳动模范、临夏砖雕省级非遗传承人沈占伟之手,牡丹“开花”,鸟儿“歌唱”,走在甘肃省临夏回族自治州的街头,建筑物上丰富多彩的砖雕随处可见。砖雕艺人用刻刀作笔、青砖为纸,“复刻”世界。

  临夏砖雕亦称河州砖雕,是和建筑物紧密结合的一种实用艺术,成熟于明清时期,到近代又吸收了绘画、木雕的艺术特色,使这一民间艺术形式更加完美。2006年5月20日,临夏砖雕经国务院批准列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。

  从小喜爱绘画的沈占伟,搜集一切可以用来绘画的工具,用简陋的蜡笔、烟盒装订的图画本,画出自己的所见所闻。为生活所迫的年月里,沈占伟在做泥瓦工的间隙,也要坚持去家族里做砖雕的老人那里学艺。

  开始正式拜师学艺,沈占伟从打磨砖块、替师傅磨刻刀开始干,只为学到砖雕技艺。“我有绘画的功底,比较擅长雕刻前的构思和设计,只要能在砖上画出来,我就能刻出来。”沈占伟认为,如何在一块砖上刻出满意的作品,构思非常重要。

  据沈占伟介绍,刻雕工艺包括打磨、构图、雕刻、细磨、过水、编号、拼接安装、修饰等八道程序,制作工具有折尺、锯子、刨子、铲、錾、刻刀等,其中铲、錾和刻刀又随工艺要求分轻重、大小、长短、刃口宽窄薄厚数种。

  他说,一名成熟的砖雕手工艺人,从挑选一块合适的砖开始就已经有了自己的想法和见解。于他而言,敲一敲砖体,仅凭声音他就能分辨出这块砖是否适合用作雕刻。“如果砖选不好,后续雕到一半会开裂,手艺人就前功尽弃了。”

2006年,临夏砖雕列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。图为沈占伟在雕刻。(资料图) 赵永正 摄 2006年,临夏砖雕列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。图为沈占伟在雕刻。(资料图) 赵永正 摄

  “雕刻技法主要有阴线刻、凹面线刻、凸面线刻、浅浮雕、高浮雕、镂空式透雕等种类。”沈占伟认为,这是临夏砖雕艺术的精华所在,一幅砖雕往往由三四层图案构成,重重叠叠,有极强立体感。

  多年来,他在潜心研究临夏砖雕的创新、设计、雕刻的基础上,首创开发出了可拆移砖雕和一系列临夏砖雕微雕作品。他的其中一个作品《博古架》采用临夏砖雕镂空雕、圆雕、深浮雕、减地平雕等高难技法,以牡丹、荷花、鼎、如意等奇珍异宝为题材,寓意“和睦平安”“必定如意”,作为第100届中国进出口商品交易会展品展出。

  除了精进自己的技艺,沈占伟作为临夏砖雕项目省级代表性传承人,积极开展传承活动,努力培养后继人才。2006年12月他担任临夏神韵砖雕有限公司经理、艺术总监,将生产车间和一线当作自己的课堂,为更多热爱砖雕艺术的人传道解惑。

  2015年,经甘肃省人力资源和社会保障厅批准,“沈占伟省级技能大师工作室”成立,沈占伟成为领办人。2020年,工作室晋升为国家级技能大师工作室。

  沈占伟认为,成立技能大师工作室,为这项千年技艺能够传承下去提供了平台,能够把好的设计、构思都集中起来,做好人才培养。但是“高仿假冒”砖雕产品增多,让砖雕制品的市场良莠不齐,沈占伟担忧这门技艺在不远的将来会失传。

  沈占伟说,市面上大量出现的机器大批量用水泥生产的砖雕作品,质量参差不齐。批量化生产的“假冒”砖雕作品严重影响了临夏砖雕的品牌,让雕刻一个作品动辄需要数月的手艺人无奈至极。“手艺要传承,手艺人要能靠这个技艺养家糊口。市场再不整顿,手艺人就没有创作热情了,传承这门费时费力的技艺就无从谈起了。”(完)

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